There are many themes in this subfield, including the challenge of the ‘impure’ to social order and physical well-being, and the ‘impure’ witch embodies key concerns of society. Evans-Pritchard’s classic study of the Azande remains a powerful influence, and subsequent work often examines witchcraft in the context of communal stress. But the most important question remains: What is witchcraft?


As the occult and modernity intertwine, the dark side of kinship and anonymity is increasingly represented by witchcraft. Examples of witchcraft practices are penis snatching, dead alms, and killer numbers. Anonymity in the occult is brought to a new level by broadcast rumors, which are intimately connected to global flows of information and modern mediascapes.

Anonymity in urban life is intimately tied to rumors about strangers. The public space of large cities offers countless opportunities for encounters with strangers. In such environments, anonymity is the dominant characteristic of urban life. Moreover, “traffic relationships” are the interactional repertoire par excellence, which suppose minimal mutual recognition between strangers. In addition to this, urban people routinely deal with nonpersons. For instance, it is highly dangerous to confront a stranger on the street.

Penis snatching, for example, is a notorious example of the evils of anonymity. It is an especially dangerous form of witchcraft if it involves traffic relationships or accosting people in public. Several Nigerians have been lynched because they allegedly asked for directions. In another instance, a preacher in Nigeria was lynched for a penis snatching case. As the perpetrators were anonymous, the victims did not even know that they were being attacked.


According to the legends of the ancient world, witches had infernal powers. This power would allow them to operate upon their victims remotely. These witches would make puppets, dolls, figures, or bundles of rags and will them to resemble their intended victims. They would then stick pins into their puppets so that they would cause appropriate pain in their intended victims. They could even hear the secrets of departed souls.

Witches had almost infinite power to cause mischief and were inclined to harm others. Their mighty energies were inexhaustible and no amount of human strength could strip them of them. However, when they tried to harm people, the only way to protect society was to punish them. The only way to prevent this was to punish them with capital punishment. The punishment for witchcraft was also a warning for people. It’s best to understand the history of witchcraft before you commit the crime.


Sorcery, or the practice of influencing another’s nature or body, has been around for millennia. The term originated with the study of central African magical beliefs, and was often used to control property against a person’s will. Witchcraft has been practiced throughout history, and its examples can be found in ancient texts as far back as Babylonia. The term itself is often a perversion of Catholic iconography, and this has led to some misunderstandings among practitioners.

In Central Africa, for example, malign magic practitioners were thought to be the cause of the illness of their families. Some people believed that feeding witches could give them a mystical power. In other cultures, witchcraft was believed to be spread through feeding and contact, making it dangerous for children to interact with these individuals. Regardless of whether the children were victims of maltreatment or not, parents discouraged their children from interfering with witches.

Modern practitioners of illumination and delusion have performed successful sorceries based on fictional concepts. However, even if a sorcery is based on fraud, the results are still the same. Sorcery is the process of manifesting something from the unknown to create a desired effect. Sorcery is a vital aspect of witchcraft, and is the basis of many of its practices.


Tea plantations are reputed to be microcosms of the global economy. Yet, many adivasi women workers have been accused of witchcraft. These women have been caught in the complex world of plantation worker-management conflict, a society defined by rigidity of power, patronage and social distances. An accusation of witchcraft can arise from anything, from a domestic dispute to a public witch hunt. During the witch hunt, the community is put under vigil.

Chaudhuri argues that these accusations are a periodic response by the adivasi worker community against the oppression they face under the plantation system. Because these workers lack the organizational and political means to mount an effective social protest, they become scapegoats for the malice of the plantation economy. Witch hunts represent an effective, yet controversial, protest against the oppressors. Plantations for witchcraft, despite its negative reputation, is an important study for those interested in India and the world of migrant laborers.


The definition of witchcraft has been re-defined many times since classical times. Basically, witchcraft is the use of secret, unusual or supernatural forces for bad purposes. While ancient Greeks did believe in magic, they did not see it as a threat in everyday life, but rather as a strange practice performed by dishonorable Greeks and Persian priests. Ultimately, the Old Testament views all witchcraft as a form of witchcraft, and thus condemns it.

Contemporary witchcraft has a dynamic ritual repertoire that focuses on nature and acknowledges the seasons of the year and the individual. There are both formal and informal organizations involved in practicing witchcraft today. One group is the Reclaiming Tradition, a US-based international tradition comprised of both men and women, and focuses on healing and cultural practices. Members of this group also hold annual camp gatherings. Its members also practice the practices of traditional witchcraft in the context of modern society, bringing together a wide variety of cultures, including those of different religions.

Early modern Europeans regarded witchcraft as an impiety. Oftentimes, magistrates reacted in horror to the superstitions of ordinary peasants. These “superstitious” peasants were considered to have denied the sovereignty of God. The accusation of witchcraft is often connected to the development of church reforms in the Middle Ages. For example, the Reformation of the Church era coincided with the rise of demonology and witchcraft.

Public perception

A recent study by Gallup found that public perception of witchcraft in sub-Saharan Africa is on the rise. Compared to other cultures, this belief has a negative impact on the public’s perception of the world. When asked to rate their lives on a ladder scale from one to ten, those who believe in witchcraft rated their lives at 4.3, while those who do not believe in witchcraft rated theirs at 4.8.

This disturbing reality of witchcraft has led to many violent incidents in recent decades. In 1998, machete-wielding gangs murdered 150 people claiming to be witches in Indonesia. In South Africa, witch-hunting sprees resulted in more than 2,000 cases of violence against ‘witches’ between 1990 and 1998. Today, public perception of witchcraft is generally tainted by scandals and subversion, which have diminished the reputation of good witches.

The functionalism of this approach may have under-prepared researchers for post-independence dynamics. The proliferation of witchcraft studies in postcolonial Africa has been especially relevant to anthropologists’ understanding of modernity. As a result, witchcraft has become a hot topic of discussion in newspapers, TV, and street rumors. This new context for witchcraft study has prompted many anthropologists to focus on how these practices relate to the perception of’modernity’ in various sectors of society, including national politics, sport, and entrepreneurship.